Hierarchy of biological organization essay example

12 levels of biological organization

Levels in Biological Theory Besides the more philosophical debates discussed above, levels of organization also play an important conceptual role in biological research and theory.

A tree is a much more complex organism, requiring the specialization of such cells. To make new viruses, they have to invade and hijack the reproductive mechanism of a living cell; only then can they obtain the materials they need to reproduce.

Levels of biological organization from smallest to largest

His aim is to delineate major structural or organizational features of nature, of which levels of organization are the most salient ones. Communities exist within populations, which exist within ecosystems. No spam, we promise. In the present context, what is noteworthy is that the cases that inspire the eliminativist aspirations of the New Wave model encompass only intralevel, i. We have also noted that there is a curious disconnect between the tradition ranging from Oppenheim and Putman to Bechtel, Craver and Wimsatt on the one hand, and the discussions of levels in evolutionary biology e. SchoolTutoring Academy is the premier educational services company for K and college students. Anatomy is an example of a biology specialty concerned with this level. To put it very roughly, the core of this argument is that if we accept the plausible assumption that all physical occurrences must have sufficient physical causes, it is not clear how there could be room for additional higher-level causes of lower-level physical effects. McCauley ed. It contains a multitude of criteria that levels could but do not necessarily have to satisfy, so that almost any set of entities that are in some respect similar to one another could be said to form a level. Biochemistry: the study of the material substances that make up living things Botany: the study of plants, including agriculture Cellular biology: the study of the basic cellular units of living things Ecology: the study of how organisms interact with their environment Evolutionary biology: the study of the origins and changes in the diversity of life over time Genetics: the study of heredity Molecular biology: the study of biological molecules Physiology: the study of the functions of organisms and their parts Zoology: the study of animals, including animal behavior Adding to the complexity of this enormous idea is the fact that these fields overlap. Mammals have many organ systems. As this rarely happens, and attributing epistemic, ontological, or methodological superiority to the lower levels is at best a claim that needs to be substantiated, reductions appear to be wildly at odds with actual scientific practice. In the spatial memory mechanism, four levels of mechanisms can be identified: the level of spatial memory, the level of spatial map formation, the cellular-electrophysiological level, and finally the molecular level.

What kinds of regularities should we include—only causal generalizations, or also regularities describing associational or compositional relations Craver —? The components of NMDA receptors in turn include things such as glutamate binding sites and glutamate ions, whereas the components of synaptic vesicles include things such as transport proteins.

However, also the time scale the rate at which processes occur is crucially important for understanding biological organization Simon ; DiFrisco : Interactions between organisms e.

Hierarchy of biological organization essay example

We may "grow" batteries from bacteria or light buildings with bioluminescent fungi. Ten of these subassemblies could be put together to make a larger sub-assembly. The layer-cake account comprises a comprehensive conception that posits exhaustive stepwise compositional relations between all constituents of nature and strict correspondence between each putative level and a primary scientific discipline that studies the constituents occupying that level. For instance, the circulatory system transports blood through the body and to and from the lungs; it includes organs such as the heart and blood vessels. This essentially provides an empirical mapping between the two scientific branches. The compositional hierarchy is often taken to involve stratification into discrete and universal levels of organization. Examples of organs are the brain, heart and lungs. For example, an NMDA receptor at the molecular level is a component of the LTP mechanism at the cellular level, and the LTP mechanism is in turn a component of the hippocampal mechanism of memory consolidation at the level of spatial map formation. Single-celled prokaryotes and single-celled eukaryotes are also considered organisms and are typically referred to as microorganisms.

From ecology to molecular biology, the science of biology studies them all. An ecosystem consists of all the living things in a particular area together with the abiotic, non-living parts of that environment such as nitrogen in the soil or rain water.

She writes for various websites, covering everything from marine biology to online programming and book publishing. It also remains to be seen whether the deflationary approach is sufficient for accounting for the role of levels of organization in biological theories and explanations.

A prominent example is the issue of levels of selection. Organs are collections of tissues grouped together performing a common function. The background idea is that the complex hierarchical organization of nature that we observe today must itself be a result of evolution, and therefore requires an evolutionary explanation.

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Biological organisation