An introduction to quantum theory and its concept

This is the atom which causes problems in our body with certain types of radiation -- Can you find why?

Introduction to quantum mechanics ppt

What are cathode rays discovered by J. The formula also predicted some additional spectral lines in ultraviolet and infrared light that had not been observed at the time. Here is a preview of these modules Electromagnetic Radiation Transmission of energy through space via no medium is electromagnetic radiation. The discovery of electrons in by J. But keeping quantum particles entangled is a tricky business. The photoelectric effect is exploited in many applications from solar cells to charge-coupled devices that record images in digital cameras. Skill - Organization and analysis of information are scientific skills. This may be involved in superconductivity and may even explain why objects have mass. But where did such a dramatic concept arise from? He postualted that the angular momentum, given by mvr, was quantised in units of h. Planck wrote a mathematical equation involving a figure to represent these individual units of energy, which he called quanta. It successfully explained phenomena such as radioactivity and antimatter , and no other theory can match its description of how light and particles behave on small scales.

He found that by making the assumption that energy existed in individual units in the same way that matter does, rather than just as a constant electromagnetic wave - as had been formerly assumed - and was therefore quantifiable, he could find the answer to his question.

It also forms the basis for the contemporary understanding of how very large objects such as stars and galaxies, and cosmological events such as the Big Bang, can be analyzed and explained.

An introduction to quantum theory and its concept

Planck won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his theory in , but developments by various scientists over a thirty-year period all contributed to the modern understanding of quantum theory. For example, the Hydrogen Spectra study led Bohr and others to develop the quantum theory to describe the atomic structures. So, an infrared lamp can warm a large surface, perhaps large enough to keep people comfortable in a cold room, but it cannot give anyone a sunburn. In , Max Planck solved this problem by assuming atoms can vibrate only at specific, or quantised, frequencies. Einstein's genius: If we assume that light is a stream of discrete parcels of energy photons , and the energy of these photons is proportional to the colour of the light, we can easily explain the observed threshold — photons below a certain frequency don't have enough energy to knock out any electrons. Planck had sought to discover the reason that radiation from a glowing body changes in color from red, to orange, and, finally, to blue as its temperature rises. Energy and mass are equivalent, and they can convert into each other. It successfully explained phenomena such as radioactivity and antimatter , and no other theory can match its description of how light and particles behave on small scales.

The intensity of the light at different frequencies is also different. Here is a preview of these modules Electromagnetic Radiation Transmission of energy through space via no medium is electromagnetic radiation. Hint: Atomic radii are about 1 to 2 Angstrom 0.

We can try localising it in space by adding a number of similar sine waves with slightly different momenta.

introduction to quantum mechanics pdf

However, although the photon is a particle, it was still being described as having the wave-like property of frequency. It is only when we break open the box and see what condition the cat is that the superposition is lost, and the cat must be either alive or dead.

Rated 10/10 based on 22 review
Download
Introduction to quantum mechanics